What is objectives
The meaning of objectives
Objectives When the top level management of an organisation clearly lays out the mission or goals of the establishment then the next step is to convert these into actual tasks. For this a mission is to be divided into small and workable objectives.Thus ordinarily objectives are those results or targets to achieve which any organisation works. They are the end points of an activity which has been well planned at the beginning itself. Therefore objectives are not strategies. Strategies are means to achieve objectives or goals.
It is very difficult to define a objective clearly yet according to some scholars it is very necessary to learn about objectives.
Objectives are those fargets which an institution wants to achieve within different time limits”. -Macfaurland.
“An organisational objective is that cherished and desired targets which determines the space of the management and suggests directions for its activities.”-Prof. Terry
“Objective is a word which is normally used to express the peak point of any management programme. -Kuntz and O’Donnell
“Objectives are those targets which an organisation tries to achieve through its existence and activities”.-Gulick and Josh
Thus it is clear that “Objectives are those expectedresults which an institution wishes to achieve within a fixedtime limit. They are the end points expressed either in a qualitative manner or as a result and to reach these points every member of the organisation works hard.
On the basis of the meanings of objectives and the above mentioned definitions the following qualities appear on the forefront.
(1) Objectives are those targets or results that an organisation and its members collectively wish to achieve.
(2) Objectives are those peak points where a firm or a person aims to reach.
(3) Objectives are based on the mission or the goals of an institution and are determined for their fulfilment.
(4) Objectives are free and symptoms which cannot be described as specifically result oriented but in terms of “maximum possible”, “maximum utilization and “minimum achievable”. For e.g. increase productivity, minize investment or maximum utilization of resources etc.
(5) Objectives are descriptive guidelines of organisational activities.
(6)Objectives are connected to future but determined in present.
(7)Objectives are the plan of action’ or commitments favouring “work oriented and progress.
(8)Objectives are based on certain fixed points of view qnd benifit.
(9)Objectives are determined not only for an institution but for every part (section, work) of the institution.
(10)Institution and its different sections have co-operative and not adverse aims.
(11)Every institution has multiple objectives and their priorities are decided according to their importance.
(12)Many objectives of an institution are competitive which require co-ordination and co-operation.
(13)While deciding upon objectives unexpected, unforeseen events have also to be taken into consideration.
(14)Objectives are reflections of expected activities and results and are not the actual results:
(15)on resources and efforts.
Only on the basis of objectives is it possible to focus
Classification of Objectives
Objectives can be broadly classified into the following parts
(1)Primary objectives: These objectives are directly concerned with fulfilling the needs of the primary beneficiaries and customers. Each institution is established for satisfying the requirements of special categories of one or the other type of customers.
(2)Subsidiary or Ancillary objectives. The organisation determines subsidiary objectives for the satisfaction of groups like employees, government, local groups,suppliers, professional organisations, organisational departments etc. Such objectives also called personal objectives.Commercial institutions, in order to fulfill the expectations of the employees, set up objectives to give them good salary, allowances, respectable working conditions etc.
In the same way every organisation has to include in their secondary objectives, fulfilling the expectations of the
investors, creditors, local bodies, business organisations,pressure groups and organisations, labour unions, social service organisations for weaker sections of the society etc.
(3) Short term objectives : Short term i.e. generally the objectives which can be fulfilled within a year are known as short term objectives. For example to target an increase of 5% in sales this year as compared to the previous year is a short term objective. Short term objectives can be daily, weekly, monthly and even quarterly. These are determined keeping the long term objectives in mind.
(4)Long term objectives. In general, goals that can be fulfilled between one to five years are regarded as long term objectives. These day, with the help of computers it is possible to make estimates for long periods thus even a 20 year long time period is regarded as long term but due to very frequent changes that occur in the business world it is becoming increasingly difficult to plan out long term goals correctly and accurately. Hence in practice, majority of the business concerns set long term goals for a period of 5 years only.
(5) Consistent and Balanced Objectives-Every organisation has to set consistent objectives. By consist-
ent objectives we mean those objectives which help the institution to maintain a balance with its changing external
environment. Setting of consistent objectives makes it easier for the organisation to maintain its present market in future and expand it further.
(6) Corrective objective-Every business concern desires continuous improvement in its activities, production techniques, management energy, material etc. Thus
objectives set to bring improvement in any of these are called corrective objectives. Not only can work efficiency be improved through these objectives but even the resources can be better utilized.
(7).Personalised objectives. These objectives are decided in context of the individual members of the organisation. These objectives can be of cash-economics, materialistic things etc. or psychological post, standard, recognition, involvement, non-cash incentives etc.
(8)Social objectives. These objectives are set for the benefit of the entire society. They are meant to satisfy the aspirations of the different sections of the society, to ward off various socialills like unemployment, poverty, pollution, economic disparity etc., and to bring progress in the society.
(9) Disposal objectives. These are related to the job responsibilities of a person. George Odion has classified the disposal objectives in three categories:
(A).Routine objectives. These are about those tasks of the employees which are repetitive and unchanging. Often these are also termed as disposal measures”.
(B) Problem solving Objectives- They are necessary for re-establishing the normal running of an institution.They are reactions to the deviations emerging out of unexpected disposals.
(C) Neo-emergent Objectives- These are set to adopt creativity, new trends and new changes in an organisation. To develop a new product or a new production technique are neo-emergent objectives.
(10) Official objectives- These are the general objectives of an organisation and are expressed in the organisation book-let, annual reports, detailed accounts, public circulars etc.
It is clear from the above analysis that every institution has to determine all sorts of objectives. Absence of any type of object an create many problems for the institution
Importance of Institutional objectives
Objectives are the basic necessity for the success of any organisation. The importance of institutional objectives for any commercial unit can be expressed as follows-
(1)Justification for Institution’s existence :
Objectives are mirrors of the institution. The organisation’sphilosophy, its life’s aims, desired results etc. can be learnt
from its objectives. Objectives are proofs which justify the genesis and successful running of an organisation. In short,institution only objectives explain the reasons behind setting up of institution.
(2)The basis of planning- Planning begins with determination of future objectives. In other words, determisuccessful execution
nation of objectives is a pre requisite for planning and its successful execution.
(3)Guidelines to managers – Managerial decisions are taken keeping the objectives in mind. Only after studying the objectives can a manager give proper direction to his efforts and tasks.
(4).Fulfillment of statutory needs-By setting up objectives the rules and regulations of the society can also be observed, because goals are set keeping in mind all statutory and legal provisions. Legal objectives can save the isation from committing illegal mistakes.
(5)Convenience in Decision Making: Existence of objectives make decision making very simple. On the basis of objectives, proper solutions can be found in contra dictory and conflicting situations.
(6)Convenience in co-ordination : On the basis of clear and well defined objectives, distribution of work amongst departments, officials and personnel becomes convenient. This facilitates uniformity and orderliness in the organisational tasks. Duplication of responsibilities is removed. Disposal of jobs at departmental level also becomes easy.
(7) Helpful in Determination of standards-Organisation objectives help in deciding the standards at various fields for e.g. customer care, profitability, social responsibility etc. The progress of work, their standards are decided on the basis of objectives. The progress of work can be evaluated only on the basis of objectives.
(8) Sources of Inspiration-Objectives inspire an individual. Once the objectives are clear, an individual starts working to achieve them. In the absence of objectives their efforts slacken, enthusiasm dims and energy levels and aspirations weaken.
(9) An instrument of control- Objectives make it convenient to keep a check on tasks. Comparing the work progress against targets, deviations can be detected. In this way work efficiency of workers and the organisation can also be evaluated. Efforts are made to always keep the actual disposal in accordance with the objectives.
(10) Amalgamation of national interests-By setting the objectives before hand, the organisation can amalgamate national interests with its own. These objectives can thus pay adequate attention to matters of national interest e.g. unemployment, poverty, economic disparity and